Interpretation: What is race?
Race is a social construct
Race is not biological
Suggested Reading: Saini, 2019; Hoberman, 2013
Why do minoritised ethnic populations have different outcomes?
Racism, not race, causes health disparities.
Suggested Reading: Graves Jr, J.L. and Goodman, A.H., 2021.
Genetic ancestry can predict genetic conditions
Genetic ancestry is not the same as race
If concluding on genetic ancestry-based differences, researchers must undertake appropriate testing for validity
Suggested Reading: Borrell et al., 2021
Stratifying Data by Race
Recruiting for diversity is essential, but do results need to be stratified by race/ethnicity too? We must consider:
Is race stratification relevant to the study? Is it justified within the protocol and/or hypothesis?
Is race stratification exploring social experiences that impact outcomes?
Suggested Reading: Ross et al., 2020
Examples of inappropriate interpretation in research:
Dublin et al.,2021: Notes differences in COVID infection among different races, offers no explanation.
Gibiino et al., 2014: Finds positive impact of White ethnicity to response of depression drugs. Cites possible genetic differences, no genetic testing.
Nipp et al., 2018: Finds cancer outcome disparities exists after adjustment for clinical cofounders, cites possible differences in tumour biology, no mention of societal factors.
Lynn, 2002: Concludes skin colour correlates to intelligence!
Consequences: Embedding ‘biological differences'
The purpose of clinical trials is to find ways to more effectively prevent, diagnose, or treat disease.
Inappropriate interpretations of biological differences may inform practice by embedding theories of biological differences between races into algorithmic tools and clinical practice.
Suggested Reading: Darshali et al., 2020; Roberts, 2021.
How inappropriate interpretation impacts a study's internal validity
Accuracy of results
Construct / Criterion Validity
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